1. Building orientation. Ideally, the building south wall should face within 15 degrees of true south. With this orientation, the building receives maximum winter and minimum summer heat gains. Between 15 and 30 degrees east or west of true south, performance tends to be reduced about 15 percent from the optimum.
2. Buffer the north side of the building. Place rooms with low heating, lighting and use requirements, such as utility rooms, storage rooms, and garages on the north side of the building to buffer the other spaces. This can reduce the normally higher heat loss through north walls while not interfering with solar access.
3. Match the solar heating system to the room use. Consider occupancy patterns when choosing a system: what are the heating, day-lighting and privacy requirements of the room? For example, a bedroom requires privacy and needs heat after sunset, so a thermal storage wall might be the logical choice. A living room, on the other hand, needs daytime and early evening heat and has higher lighting requirements; therefore, a direct gain system or sunspace may be more appropriate.
4. Include adequate thermal mass. For buildings with south-facing glass area more than 7% of the floor area, additional thermal mass must be included to absorb heat and maintain comfort. Thermal mass,such as concrete masonry walls and concrete paver floors, should be relatively thin (2 to 4-inch (51 to 102-mm) thick) to allow heat absorption and release within a 24-hour cycle; and should be spread over a large area to help prevent localized hot or cold spots. Eight-in. (203-mm) fully grouted concrete masonry should be used if the wall is used as a north-south division wall separating two direct gain rooms. Such a wall can store heat on both sides, optimizing the mass storage. Do not fill the cores of these walls with sand, soil or insulation. For trombe walls, the concrete masonry wall is typically 8 to 16 inch (203 to 406 mm) thick, depending on the desired time lag for heat distribution indoors. Minimum recommended ratios of thermal mass area to additional glass area (i.e., south-facing glass area > 7%) are:
- 1:5.5 for floor in direct sunlight
- 1:4 for floor not in direct sunlight
- 1:8.3 for wall and ceilings
5. Distribute the thermal mass throughout the room. In direct gain systems, the primary collection mass is placed in direct sunlight. In addition to this mass, comfort is improved if mass is distributed evenly around the room because localized hot or cold spots are less likely to develop. Performance is relatively the same whether the mass is located on the east, west or north walls, or in the floor. The mass should be distributed over an interior surface area approximately equal to six times the solar glass area.
6. Avoid “insulating” thermal mass. Rugs or carpets in the solar collection space will significantly impact thermal mass performance. In general, an exposed strip of massive floor about 8 feet (2.4 m) wide provides a good floor collection area.
7. Select an appropriate thermal mass color. Masonry walls can be any color in direct gain systems, although the mass should be somewhat darker (0.5 < a < 0.8) than the low-mass materials. (Absorptivity, a, ranges from 0 to 1, indicating the percentage of incident solar energy that is absorbed. a = 1 indicates 100% absorption) The absorptivity of natural or colored concrete masonry falls in this range without paints or special treatments. Mass walls that are too dark (0.8 < a < 1.0), can result in high surface temperatures where surfaces are exposed directly to the sun, and less absorption elsewhere on the wall. Masonry floors, on the other hand, should be dark (0.7 < a < 1.0) to increase the absorption of the concrete pavers or masonry units and to counter the tendency of the heat to be released too rapidly to the atmosphere. A matte floor finish will maximize absorption and reduce glare. Thermal storage walls should be dark (a > 0.8) or coated with a selective surface material, such as a metallic film specifically designed to maximize absorption and minimize heat loss due to radiation back towards the glass. Materials without significant thermal mass, such as frame walls, should be lighter in color.
8. Choose appropriate glass. Windows are typically rated by their solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC) and conductance (U-factor). Regardless of climate, the U-factor should be as low as possible (0.35 or less), to minimize conductive heat loss through the windows. For southfacing glass in most climates, choose windows with an SHGC as high as possible (0.6 or higher) to allow maximum heat gain during the winter, and rely on overhangs or other shading to limit summer sun. In cooling climates, such as South Florida, choose windows with an SHGC as low as possible.
|9. Use appropriate window shading. Windows facing within about 30° of true south can be shaded with properly sized overhangs. Figure A shows guidelines for sizing the overhangs to allow sunlight entry from about mid-September through mid-March (software is also available for sizing overhangs). Off-south wall orientations reduce overhang effectiveness. East- and west-facing glass can be a significant source of heat gain and glare year-round, because of low morning and evening sun angles. Of the two, west-facing glass is more of a concern, because afternoons are typically hotter than mornings. There are several strategies to address these issues: limit the area of east- and westfacing glass; use wide overhangs (such as porch roofs; smaller overhangs will not be effective); use evergreens for shading; or use glass that blocks solar heat (although this may require different glass types for different walls of the building).
10. Landscaping. Consider solar access and prevailing wind patterns when choosing trees and shrubs. Issues to consider include: shading of south-, east and west-facing glass; channeling summer breezes; summer shading of the roof and paved areas; and blocking prevailing winter winds. Because leafless deciduous trees can block as much as 30% of winter solar energy, trees should not be placed where they block the south-facing windows in locations where significant winter solar heating is expected. However, in climates where summer heat is a significant problem, trees on the south-facing side may be appropriate.
For more information on this topic see NCMA TEK 6-5A Passive Solar Design available free online on sponsoring member web sites. See www.ncma.org for links. CMD